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Tea is a non-alcoholic beverages obtained from tropical plant of Camellia family. There are two main types of plant (i) Camellia assimica-a native of India, (ii) Camellia sinensis-a native of China. Tea is obtained by processing of the shrub.

Tea Beverages
Tea Beverages

Tea story goes back a long way to China, where it was first discovered by the second emperor, Shen Ming in 2737 B.C. The East India Company established experimental tea plantations in Assam and by 1856 it was planted in many areas in Darjeeling. Tea was grown successfully in these areas as it requires tropical or subtropical climate with acid type soil and rainfall of 70 inch per year.

Various Types of Tea

Tea production requires very high degree of technical expertise and precision, almost as good as wine making. Tea processing begins with the plucking of new shoots of tea leaves or flushes of the tea plant. Flushes are the two uppermost, tender, young leaves and a small unopened bud of a plant.

The timing of plucking of the “Flush” determines the quality and strength of the infusion. The next step is processing which determines the type of tea leaves will become. Basically there are three types of tea-Green, Oolong and Black.

  1. Green Tea (unfermented): Green tea leaves are steamed immediately after plucking. This prevents oxidation and fermentation. It is then dried and rolled in one of many possible shapes. Green tea has a delicate taste and the infusion is light green or golden in colour. It is staple in orient and is used extensively by Japanese for their celebrated Tea Ceremony. There are four varieties of Japanese green tea. i.e.
  • Gyokuro
  • Sencha
  • Bancha
  • Matcha or powdered tea

Matcha is made from old but good plants and is used in tea ceremonies. Mountain stream water is best for making Japanese tea.

In the west green tea is gaining popularity due to its high content of vitamins and minerals. Recent scientific studies have linked green tea drinking with reduced risk of strokes, heart disease and cancer. In India it is grown in Dehradun and Kangra valleys and is used to make the Kashmiri Kalva apart from regular tea preparations. Examples of Indian green tea are Gun Powder, Imperial, Hyson, Chanmees and Soumees.

  1. Oolong Tea (Chinese, fermented for a shorter period of time): Oolong tea leaves are withered and oxidized for a much shorter time than black teas. This method of processing results in a tea that is in-between black and green in colour and taste. The infusion is amber in colour. It is popular in China. Some of the best Oolongs is Formosa Oolong which is grown in Taiwan.
  2. Black Tea (fully fermented Tea): The leaves are first withered, twisted and then rolled by placing them in rolling machines which frees the natural enzymes and juices of tea. Then comes fermentation process during which the tea’s natural enzymes and oxygen is allowed to mix.

The leaves turn black and are then dried to stop further chemical activity. Black tea leaves produce a red orange to deep red brown liquors and yield a hearty flavour. Some popular black teas are Darjeeling, Assam tea from India: Ceylon tea from Sri Lanka. Keemun (The most famous of Chinese black tea).

Other Popular Teas

  1. Herbal Tea: These do not contain any true tea leaves. These are made from the flowers, berries, peels, seeds and roots of many different plants like Camellia, Rosemary, Mint, lemon grass Ginseng, Milfoil or Yarrow and Rose Chip Tea etc. Herbal teas are gaining popularity due to its caffeine free nature by people who are health conscious.
  1. Instant Tea: It is made by spray or freeze drying an infusion of tea. It is then packed in air tight containers. It is used in automatic vending machines.
  2. Yerba De Mate: This is made from the leaves and small stems of a species of a tree which grows in Paraguay and Brazil and is processed like black tea. It is taken without milk and has medicinal properties.
  3. Scented Tea: These are made by adding flavouring like Jasmine flowers, Rose petals, orange zest or mint leaves to tea during firing stage after which they are sieved out e.g. Earl grey, lemon scented, cinnamon tea, lama tea.

Method of producing black tea

There are two methods of producing black tea:

  1. Traditional Orthodox Method and 2. CTC (Cut, Tear and Curl) Method

(1).Traditional Orthodox Method:

In this process the tea is processed in five stages:.

a. Withering (Drying): The plucked leaves are weighed and then spread out thinly or evenly on special racks for about 24 hours, where it is allowed to lose 50% of its moisture by evaporation.

b. Rolling: The leaves are put through rolling machines that break up the leaf cells. In this process the natural juices are released to come in contact with air.

c. Fermentation: In this stage oxidation of tea tanin takes place. The rolled leaves are spread out on racks in cool humid room for about 3 hours, during this period the leaves become bright, coppery red because of absorption of oxygen and also develop flavour and aroma from the enzymes present in the leaf sap.

d. Firing: The leaves are now fired in a current of hot, dry air for 20-30 minutes. Firing helps in stopping of fermentation and turns the leaves to black, dry and crisp.

e. Sifting and grading: The dry tea is sifted, graded and packed into foil lined tea chests and sealed to protect the tea from moisture and odour.

Method of Producing Green Tea and Oolong Tea: It is similar to black tea except fermentation stage is omitted.

Oolong tea is also similarly processed but has a partial fermentation stage.

(2). CTC (Cut, Tear and Curl) Method

The leaves are processed through a special machine which cuts, tears and curls the withered leaf all in a single process during the beginning of fermentation stage. The CTC leaves have pelletiike appearance and always broken in size and have browner leaf than orthodox method. It produces strong liquor with less flavour.

Grading of Tea

Black tea is graded according to their leaf or particle size. There are four main grades of black tea:

a. Leaf teas

b. Broken and small leaf teas

c. Fannings

d. Dust

a. Leaf Teas gradings are:

(i) SFTGFOP (Super fine Tippy Golden Flowery Orange Pekoe)

(ii) TGFOP (Tippy Golden Flower Orange Pekoe)

(iii) FOP (Flowery Orange Pekoe)

(iv) OP (Orange Pekoe)

(v) P(Pekoe)

(vi) PS (Pekoe Souchong)

Pekoe is derived from a Chinese word which means that leaves are exclusively plucked from the tip of the branch. The orange pekoe has nothing to do with oranges but rather indicates a whole leaf showing no tip. Leaf teas yield more fragrance and flavour than broken and small leaf teas.

b. Broken and Small Leaf Teas: In this group the leaves are of smaller size, which are intentionally cut after firing or produced by CTC method. The gradings are:

(i) BOP (Broken Orange Pekoe)

(ii) FBOP (Flowery Broken Orange Pekoe)

(iii) BP (Broken Pekoe)

(iv) BPS (Broken Pekoe Souchong)

c. Fannings: Fannings are small pieces of leaf. This grade includes BOP fannings, Pekoe fannings and fannings.

d. Dust: This is the trade name for smaller leaf particle size. This grade yields stronger and darker brew with a shorter infusion time.

Tea bags are nothing but blended tea in right proportion by experts having exact measured quantity. Tea bags exterior material is special which does not impart or spoil the flavour of the tea and does not burst. Tea bags are generally more expensive but at the same time convenient and hygienic. Tea bags are offered in airlines, surface and railway catering.

Making of Tea

Tea is an unique beverages having aromatic and highly volatile substances. Therefore it is important not to lose these in the process of making tea. For infusion the water should be at quite high temperature, so that essential oils are released slowly.

Therefore tea should not be boiled. Besides aromatic substances, tannin gets rapidly dissolved, i.e. if you boil the tea; tannin being an alkaloid gives bitter taste, obstinate bitter flavour and black colour.

Unfortunately, In India people use low grade tea devoid of flavour more for stimulating purpose by over boiling to extract more tannin and caffeine, which makes it bitter and darker. It is substituted with good amount of sugar and milk to emulsify tannin and milk fat.

Ideally stored water is good for making tea than fresh water from tap because fresh water contains fair amount of chlorine, which interferes with the flavour of tea. It is important to keep the tea pot warm either by pouring hot water in it or by putting it in warmer (water used may not be absolutely boiling).

During the process of infusion natural convection current in water unfolds the tea leaves slowly dissolving the volatile essential oils without evaporating them simultaneously. For this strong air tight lid acts as a deterrent. Tea cosy comes as an aid in the process of infusion by delaying the drop in temperature allowing more essential oils to get released without dissolving much of tannin and caffeine.

It is important to choose the right kind of teapot that retains the temperature for longer period. The Porcelain or China with shiny milky white surface is considered to be good as there is less heat loss due to shiny white surface which acts as heat repellent. Although silver line metal pots absorb a lot of latent heat but due to outer shiny silver surface, the chances of dropping temperature become less.

The quantity of tea required depends upon the following factors:

  1. The size of tea leaf
  2. The amount of fermentation (darkness of tea leaf)
  3. Total quantity to be made in bulk
  4. The size, shape and design of the pot
  5. Hardness of water

Large tea leaves require more infusion time than smaller tea leaves. Darker tea leaves become bitter soon hence should be infused less. In large institutional catering tea is made in bulk quantities 25-500 cups, therefore as larger are the number of cups, lesser the tea leaves required.

Round pots are always great specially that narrow around the neck as evaporation reduces considerably, takes shorter time consequently. Whiter and brighter surfaces are always better as it reduces the time. Hard water not only increases infusion temperature more so because of high osmotic pressure leads to reverse osmosis.

Various available packaging like material used for making tea bags, the wrapper of the tea bags, carton and packing affects the freshness of tea. White paper lined with bright aluminum silver foil maintains exact quantity of moisture and temperature, prevents wild fluctuations.

Wooden cartons are always best for bulk consignments. For consumer packing cedar wood cases are attractive and effective. Some packs in velvet Pandora are also used by various tea marketing agencies. Normal packs are available in polythene and paper cartons with cellophane wrap.

Service of Tea: One of the greatest social and cultural unity of mankind is perhaps drinking tea together and each country has contributed and enriched this culture of guest entertainment in their own way. Japanese and Chinese are more inclined to follow the rituals religiously whereas the others do it somewhat casually.

The Tea Tradition

The tea tradition has evolved over the years quite like an art form prior to introduction of tea into Britain, The Englishman had two main meals-breakfast and dinner. Breakfast was ale, bread and beef and dinner was a heavy meal at the end of the day. Due to long gap between two meals made Duchess of Bedford (1788-1861) feel faint in late afternoon.

She began inviting friends home to join her for afternoon meal at 5 O’clock. The menu centred around small cakes, bread and butter, sandwiches, assorted sweets and of course tea. This lead to two distinct forms of tea low and high tea.

“Low tea” served in the early part of the afternoon in the aristocratic homes of the wealthy. “High tea” served in the late afternoon became the major meal of the day for lower and middle classes. Nowadays most of the five star hotels are reviving the tradition of high teas. Some of the hoteliers have introduced tea lounges as one of the outlets serving special tea, which has provided additional business.


The Japanese tea ceremony, or Cha-no-yu, is an aesthetic pastime unique to Japan that features the serving and drinking of Matcha, a powdered green tea. Though tea had been introduced into Japan from China around the eighth century, Matcha did not reach the country until the end of the twelfth century.

The practice of holding social gatherings to drink Matcha spread among the upper class from about the fourteenth century. Gradually one of the main purposes of these gatherings, which took place in a shoin (study), became the appreciation of paintings and crafts from China in serene atmosphere.

Cha-no-yu or sado, the tea cult is the traditional Japanese way of drinking tea in accordance with set rules of etiquette. Both host and guests share a sense of togetherness during the ceremony.

Under the influence of the formalities and manners that regulated the daily life of the Samurai, who were then the dominant class in Japanese society, there developed certain rules and procedures that the participants in these tea parties were required to follow.

This was the origin of the tea ceremony. The form of Cha-no-yu that is practised today was established in the second half of the sixteenth century, during the Momoyama period, by the tea master Sen no Rikyu.

Cha-no-yu involves more than merely enjoying a cup of tea or Ocha as referred to in Japan in a stylized manner. The ceremony developed under the influence of Zen Buddhism, the aim of which in simple terms is to purify the soul by becoming one with nature.

The true spirit of the tea ceremony has been described by such terms as calmness, rusticity, gracefulness, and the “aestheticism of austere simplicity and refined poverty.” The strict canons of Cha-no-yu etiquette, which at first glance may appear to be burdensome and overmeticulous, are in fact carefully calculated to achieve the highest possible economy of movement. When performed by an experienced master, they are a delight to watch.

Cha-no-yu has played an important role in the artistic life of the Japanese people. As aesthetic pursuit, the tea ceremony involves the appreciation of the room in which it is held the garden attached to the room, the utensils used in serving the tea, and the decor of the setting, such as a hanging scroll or a flower arrangement.

Japanese architecture landscape gardening, ceramics, and flower arranging all owe a great deal to the tea ceremony. It was the spirit of Cha-no-yu, representing the beauty of studied simplicity and harmony with nature, that moulded the basis of these traditional forms of Japanese culture. Moreover, the kind of formalities observed in the tea ceremony have influenced the development of the manners of the Japanese in a fundamental way. When tea was first brought to Japan it was regarded as medicine and stimulant.

After the death of Sen no Rikyu in 1591, his teachings were handed down from generation to generation by his descendants and disciples. Different schools were established and have continued to be active to the present day. In tea ceremony, tea is made by putting powdered tea leaves- Matcha into a cup and then adding hot water it is then stirred then till foamy and drunk.

How to Drink Matcha?

(1) Pick the tea bowl with your right hand and place it on the palm of your left hand.

(2) Place the thumb of your right hand on the rim of the tea bowl and rotate it clockwise twice with your right hand.

(3) Then drink tea, supporting the bowl with your left hand and holding it tightly with your right hand.

Note: Please remember that you have to finish the tea in three or four sips. The last half portion must be sipped by making a sound. It is said that the sound means “I enjoyed and finished it all.”


The art of drinking beverages and serving tea beverages plays a major cultural role in China. It inspired poetry and songs. Mutual love of tea cements lifelong friendships. For centuries, the ritual of preparing and serving tea beverages has held a special place in the hearts and minds of Chinese aristocracy, court officials, intellectuals and poets.

The Chinese tea ceremony emphasizes the tea, rather than the ceremony what the tea tastes like, smells like, and how one tea tastes are compared to the previous tea, or in successive rounds of drinking. Ceremony does not mean that each server will perform the ritual the same way; it is not related to religion. Each step is meant to be a sensory exploration and appreciation.

This style of tea-drinking uses small cups to match the small, unglazed clay teapots; each cup is just large enough to hold about two small swallows of tea. These tiny cups are particularly popular in Fujian and Chiujao, in southern coastal China above canton. In Shanghai and Beijing they use large cups.


Coffee is the most popular after dinner beverages. A strong characteristic flavour of coffee in coffee shop or pub brings essence of belongingness and togetherness, not to forget the joy of combination of cigar, coffee and cognac. Although all the three in a row are called a deadly combination and short cut to heaven.

Coffee is a cure for drowsiness, headache and catalyst to great thoughts. Black coffee is also considered to be digestive notwithstanding all these coffee contains caffeine, a stimulant of alkaloid family, that has accumulating ill effects and not recommended for hypertension, cardiac and insomnia patients.


There is a legend attached with almost everything possible on the earth, there is one for coffee too. An ancient Ethiopian goat herder noticed his wandering goats in an extreme state of excitement, dancing on their hind legs and bleating wildly after they fed on the berries of a certain tree. That’s where coffee comes from a fruit.

The coffee plant is an evergreen tree or bush which grows in subtropical and tropical climate throughout the world from sea level to about 1850 meters above sea level. To grow coffee plant one requires rich soil, high rainfall along with hot climate. The part of plant is processed and used for making into coffee is the ripened berries which grow along the stems. Coffee beans are the seeds inside the fruit. The flesh of coffee fruit is removed and coffee beans are dried.


(1) Coffea arabica (Arabica Coffee): It is one of the best quality coffees. Its beans are uniform, bold, regular sized and have good flavour beverages. It is grown in India, Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Kenya and Jamaica.

(2) Coffea canephora (Coffee Robusta): It is the second main type of coffee beverages. The beans from the plant are usually smaller of a lower quality with neutral flavour. It gives higher yield than Arabica. It is grown in East and West Africa.

(3) Coffea liberica: It is produces third main type of coffee beverages. The beans are large in size but lack in quality. It is grown in Malaysia and Guyana.

Something more about Coffee beverages

Indian coffee beverages, very popular in the European market is the “Monsoon Coffee”. In the earlier times ships carrying these beans would take almost four months before they touched the European coast. By that time, the beans would absorb the saline moisture in the air and acquire a peculiar salty taste that the Europeans got pretty much addicted to.

So now just to maintain that salty taste, these coffee beans are deliberately spread out on the seacoast, just so they can absorb the saline moisture and taste the same as they did ages ago!
One of the world’s finest coffee and most expensive “Kopi Luwak” or Monkey Coffee is made up of droppings of a small Indonesian creature-the Palm Toddy Cat, roasted with the coffee beans!

Processing of Coffee

The dry method: It is used in countries which do not have sufficient water. The coffee berries are spread out thinly in the sun and left till pulp shrivels tight on to the parchment. The berries are then put through hulling machine which removes pulp and parchment in one stage. Beans processed in this way have traces of silver skin and lack attractiveness of washed beans.

The Wet Method: It is used in countries where there is sufficient water. The berries are processed through a depulping machine, which removes fleshy part leaving the two seeds in their parchment jacket. They are then placed in large vats allowed to ferment for 24-40 hours. During fermentation the coffee beans develop aroma and any adhering pulp gets removed. The beans are then washed and dried in the sun. They are then put in machine for removal of parchment and sent for grading.

Grading of Coffee: The grades vary as per the country of origin. The usual grading is seen

(i) Bold or A – Large, heavy, flat beans

Second size or B – Medium size, heavy, flat beans

Small or C – Small size, heavy, flat beans

(ii) Peaberry 1 – Large, peaberry

Peaberry 2 – Small, peaberry

(iii) Elephant – Berries of above average size, often deformed in shape

(iv) Triage or T – Broken beans, usually of low quality

(v) TT – Large broken beans

(vi) CTT – Mixed small flat and large broken beans

Roasting of Coffee

The green coffee bean has little or no flavour. The flavour, aroma and colour is imparted by roasting of coffee bean. Roasting can vary from light to dark and is graded by colour and light roast gives mild taste and dark roast gives bitter characteristics.

Coffee Grinding

The roasted coffee bean is ground to allow the flavor, aroma and colour to be easily extracted by hot water. The ground coffee deteriorates more rapidly than the roasted coffee bean because of the high volatility of the flavouring oils.

Coffee Mixture

Chicory a perennial herb is added to coffee. The root of the plant is cut, dried, roasted and then ground before mixing it with ground coffee. Chicory mixtures are usually cheaper than pure coffee and produce a strong, heavy coffee to drink. At times figs are added to coffee.

Instant Coffee

Instant coffee is pure coffee in soluble form and is made by brewing freshly blended roasted and ground coffee in large extractors where a very strong coffee concentrate is produced. The liquid is then atomized to a fine mist into a drying chamber containing hot air where the water evaporates from each tiny droplet leaving a powder of pure coffee.

Caffeine-free coffee

Caffeine is the alkaloid substance found in coffee to which the stimulating property of coffee is due. It is also partly responsible for the bitterness of coffee. Most of the caffeine, up to 87%, can be extracted by processing the green beans under steam in vacuum. The reason for removing caffeine is to remove the stimulant content from coffee which makes it suitable drink for heart patients.

Preparation of coffee

Basically coffee liquor is a combination of soluble extracts, particles in colloidal forms and some essential oils in emulsion. Unfortunately, there is no known filter that can get rid of suspended particles which get settled at the bottom.

In fact any black coffee liquor will have several layers of suspended particles, base being very thick of sediments. There are all kinds of filters being used to get rid of particles perhaps instant coffee is the most perfect colloidal solution. Filters used are paper filters of 3-10 microns perforations. This is kept on a perforated metal bowl to hold coffee in quantity that would drip down slowly into lower bowl.

The other types of filters are self-created filter beds by coffee particles. In this case coarsely ground coffee is used with a quarter of millimetre hole in a metal bowl cascaded to the lower container. Boiled coffee is poured into it, the coarse grain partially clog the hole and slowly trickles down, collects in the lower vessels. The content of lower vessel has to be reheated as it takes very long time for the coffee to seep down.

Coffee percolater is a very common instrument for household concoction in which metallic container has heating elements that boils the contents and has a capillary tube stretching from bottom to top with a round perforated round bowl which contains coarsely ground coffee.

As the temperature rises up liquid due to capillary action reaches the top through the tube and from the fountainhead continuously sprinkles through the perforation coming in contact with ground coffee and the liquor is mixed with the rest of water. The continuous process keeps increasing the strength of the liquor.

The top lid has a glass view which shows the extent of the colour one would prefer. As soon as it is achieved machine is switched off and from bottom faucet coffee is collected in cups, hot fresh and filtered. One advantage of this is that thick particles remain at the bottom and do not reach the cup because faucet is placed little above the base of the instrument.

Cona coffee apparatus is side table gear fascinating idea to make coffee so fresh that the guest would be amazed to get the flavour as it is being prepared. The instrument resembles Keep’s Apparatus for making SO, in chemistry laboratory. The glass bowl has a narrow flask like opening in which thick cork can be fitted, through which a glass or metal hopper with a long nozzle is fitted through the cork.

The whole instrument is clamped on footed stand. Coarsely ground coffee is put into hopper with a stopper fitted into the base. Water is heated with the spirit lamp and the liquid rises slowly into the hopper due to the pressure of vapours in the flask pushing the liquid down- wards which results in related hydraulic pressure to lift the liquid into the hopper.

Coffee gets infused and as soon as the fire is reduced or removed the liquor trickles down into the glass bowl at the bottom. The cork and the hopper is removed and the footed stand helps in pouring in the cups. Thus coffee is made before the guest. A full-bodied freshly made and fragrant coffee is the outcome-pleasing the guests and surroundings alike.


Espresso originated in Italy and it is one of the most popular forms of fragrant coffee of the world. The distinctive and perceptible feature of this coffee lies in its infusion being prepared not by soaking, boiling or percolation, but by passing steam through the freshly ground coffee and consequently condensing it into drops that trickle through a mesh and are collected into the container, subsequently reheated and served black with or without sugar (Brown sugar preferred). The unique feature is light, but full of fragrance-coffee for coffee lovers delight.


Cappuccino is another Italian exquisite coffee. The difference lies basically in pouring a foar of creamy and frothy layer with sprinkle of freshly ground cinnamon powder as a garnish and flavouring. This is liked by children and light hearted people alike, often replaced by liberal dashes of chocolate powder. (Almost all Indian parties have this version as Espresso Coffee).

Filter/South Indian Coffee beverage

It is interesting to know that the coffee belt of India lies below Vindhyachal or Deccan Plateau. The kind of coffee and amount of coffee consumed is enormous. The quality of brew is also excellent though it is primitive but still going strong like their coffee as much.

The instrument or the vessel used is a battery of two copper or stainless steel containers in which the top container has tiny perforations which fits into identical bottom cylindrical container. Freshly ground coffee is poured into the top container in which measured quantity of boiling water is poured and lid is tightly fitted on top.

Coffee gets infused in water and as the pressure of steam develops a kind of reverse osmosis (pressure filtering) carries the brewed coffee down slowly through the fine perforation and liquor gets collected at the bottom. It may take hours, but normally 30 minutes to 45 minutes is enough to collect the brew.

The redeeming feature is that no flavour is lost during brewing as vapours can not escape because of lid. This is followed by liquor reheated and mix with milk and sugar as and when, time to time.

Turkish Coffee

Beans are roasted to medium high and ground to a fine powder. It is made in a special small long handled metal pot made of tinned copper or brass which is referred to in as Ibrik or Kanaka. The pulverized coffee or powdered coffee is made in Ibrik, first by boiling water with sugar and spices like cardamom, clove, cinnamon and a pinch of nutmeg.

To this liquid, coffee is added and stirred well, returned to fire. When coffee froths up to the rim, it is removed from fire and the process is repeated twice. The end product coffee (Kahweh) turns out to be very strong. The coffee cup called Finngan is made of porcelain without handle, is placed with in another cup called “Zarf’ of silver or brass which resembles egg cup.

Special preparations of coffee beverages

Café Alexander

Iced coffee with cream, three tablespoons of brandy and crème de cacao blended to make frothy

Café Borgia or Viennese Coffee

Hot coffee incorporated with sugared or honeyed hot chocolate served with whipped cream,
sprinkled with ground cinnamon, cocoa or grated orange peel.

Carioca Coffee

Hot coffee with sugar to taste combined with orange slices to impart flavour with addition of three jiggers of rum topped with whipped cream, grated orange rind, powder chocolate or cinnamon.

Glory Cafe

Hot coffee with a sugar cube and cognac brandy flavoured with vanilla.

Café Marnissimo

Black coffee with sugar with Grand Mariner, topped with whipped cream.

Calypso Coffee

Hot black coffee combined with cream and Tia Maria.

Caribbean coffee

Hot black coffee combined with cream and Rum.

Coffee Correto

Twice as strong as Espresso with Grappa.

Coffee Grog

Hot coffee with sugar (a jigger of each) rum, brandy and jamaican rum flavoured with cloves and cinnamon, lemon and orange peel floated on top with double cream. Sometimes grog is poured over spiced butter which is made by creaming butter with brown sugar, a pinch of salt and ground spices like cinnamon, nutmeg, all spices and ginger.

Gaelic Coffee

Hot black coffee combined with cream and scotch whisky.

German coffee

Hot black coffee combined with cream and Kirsch.

Hawaiian coffee

This is popular in the Caribbean. Hot milk combined with grated coconut, strained mixed with hot coffee, sprinkled with browned grated coconut.

Irish Coffee

Hot coffee with sugar cube combined with Irish Whisky with double cream allowed to float on a upturned bowl of a spoon.

Italian Coffee

Hot black coffee combined with cream and strega.

Mexican Coffee

Hot black coffee combined with cream and Kalhua.

Moka Helado

Coffee combined with drinking chocolate and blended with coffee or vanilla icecream.

Monk’s Coffee

Hot black coffee combined with cream and Bénédictine

Normandy Coffee

Hot black Coffee combined with cream and Calvados.

Prince Charles Coffee

Hot Black coffee combined with cream and Drambuie.

Royale Coffee

Hot black coffee combined with cream and cognac.

Royal Mint coffee

Hot black coffee combined with cream and Royal mint chocolate.

Scandinavian Coffee

Hot Black coffee combined with cream and Aquavit.


The Cocoa plant is a small tropical tree originally grown in South America and now commercially grown in West Africa. It needs a good soil, low altitude and high rainfall to grow.

The fruit of the tree which grows on the branches as well as main trunk is used for making cocoa and chocolate. The fruit is a large pod 4 inches-12 inches in length, about 4 inches in diameter and has a hard leathery rind containing 25-75 seeds in five distinct rows embedded in soft pulp.

Hot Cocoa Beverages
Hot Cocoa Beverages

The various species of cocoa are Criollo, Forastero. The cocoa comes from countries like West Africa, Brazil and America, although the biggest producer is West Africa.


Fermentation: The ripe cocoa pods are collected, split open and the beans and pulp surrounding is scooped out and fermented under controlled conditions. Sweat boxes are used for fermentation where temperature is allowed to rise to 40°-50°C (104-122°F).

Reasons for fermentation

(a) To kill the germs, prevent germination of the seed and decomposition of the bean.

(b) To encourage the enzyme reaction reducing bitterness and developing flavour.

The beans absorb the liquid from the fermenting sugary pulp, which is then converted into alcohol and then to acetic acid. The fermentation is stopped as soon as the mass of beans passes into the acid stage. If fermentation is allowed to continue, it would develop unpleasant flavours and odours in the beans.

Drying: The drying is done by passing through a mechanical chamber or by exposing in the sun for two to three days, occasionally turning them over.

Roasting: In this stage separation of shell from the bean takes and moisture is lost. Roasting also assists in developing of flavour and aroma Winnowing: It means removal of shell, it is done by passing through a series of rollers and sieves. Thus deshelled beans obtained are called nibs.

Dutch Processing: In this processes nibs are immersed in alkaline solution which further develops colour and flavour. After drying, the nibs may be re-roasted to correct the moisture content.

Grinding: The nibs are ground into very small particles to produce cocoa and cocoa butter.

Extraction: The cocoa mass is fed into felt lined steel pans fitted with a removable perforated lid and is subjected to hydraulic press, some of the fat is forced through filter-cloths leaving behind solid residue called press cake. This is removed from the pan, cooled to set colour, pulverized or powdered and then sieved. This is mixed with small amount salt and vanilla flavoring to make cocoa powder.


Processing of plain chocolate

(i) Mixing: In this process the cocoa mass is thoroughly mixed with powdered sugar in large blending kettles. In order to obtain standard product the fat content is controlled.

(ii) Refining: This is done by passing the mixture through a series of five heavy steel rollers. This helps in converting the chocolate to a smooth paste by reducing the size of non-fat particles. This stage exposes the particles to the air reducing moisture content, partially evaporating volatile substances and lightening the colour of the mixture.

(iii) Conching: Conching is the mechanical agitation of the chocolate mass, with additional cocoa butter, if necessary at a temperature of 60°-70°C (140-158°F), as it further exposes the mass to the air, removing further undesirable volatile substances and helps to develop flavour.

(iv) Standardizing: The chocolate may be incorporated with additional flavours before being run. off and set into moulds as bars and slabs. The product is then also known as “Couverture”.

The Processing of Milk Chocolate: This is similar to that of making plain chocolate except that milk crumb is added at the refining stage and the conching is at a lower temperature but for a longer time. (Milk crumb is a mixture of specially prepared condensed milk and chocolate mass which has been reduced to a powder form.)

Storage of Tea, Coffee and Cocoa: Coffee, especially when roasted and ground is particularly prone to loss of volatile aromatic substances which constitute much of its flavour and aroma, therefore care must be taken with storage. Whereas tea and cocoa have comparatively less problems of storage.

In all the three products one can feel the staleness after long storage due to loss of flavour components and retention of less volatile bitter tanin flavours.

Storage Time for Tea, Coffee and Cocoa Chocolate

Tea (loose) – 04 weeks

Packed or bags – 08-16 weeks

Coffee beans Roasted Vaccum packed – 52 Weeks

Coffee beans Roasted loose – 02 Weeks

Ground Vaccum packed – 40 Weeks

Ground Loose – 01 Weeks

Instant (unopened) – 12 Weeks

Cocoa Chocolate Powder – 12 Weeks

Chocolate slab – 12 Weeks

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