Environmental Impact on Culture | Understand 2 Easy Way

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Meaning of Environment : Environment is the set of surroundings which surround the human being from all sides and influence his life and activities. We include all the facts, objects, situations and conditions outside human beings, whose actions affect the life development of human beings.

“Environment is anything immediately surrounding on object and exerting a direct influence on it.

“Its means all cosmic conditions and the phenomena which exists independent of man’s activity, which are not created by man and which change and vary through their own spontaniety, independent of man’s existence and activity”.

Environmental Impact
Environmental Impact

The German scientist Fitting has given the meaning of environment as ‘The totality of milieu factors of an organism’, that is, the whole and together of the conditions of life are called environment.

Plant ecologist named Tansley has told that The total sum of effective conditions in which organisms live is called environment, American scientist Nichols has also defined environment similar to Fitting and Tansley.

In the words of Herskovits, another American anthropologist, environment is the sum total of all those external conditions and influences which influence the life and development of the living being.

Some ecologists have used the word ‘habitat’ or ‘milleu’ instead of the word ‘environment’ for the same, which also means the total set of surroundings.

Types of Environment

Before the emergence of humans, there was an abundance of natural environment on the earth’s surface. About 60 lakh years ago, the ancestor of human had incarnated on the earth. About one million years ago, the development of activity and thinking started in it. Due to thinking and being active in fulfilling the basic needs, man has made many changes in the environment till date.

The development of culture through transformation and the development of culture has been continuously active in the process of transformation. As a result, heterogeneity started appearing in the original environment, in which it became easy to classify the environment.

This classification is as follows: –

Geographical, Active, Restrictive and Behavioral Environment

(i) Geographical Environment : The new environment created by humans by changing the existing environment around them through their actions is called Geographical Environment. This is measured by the amount of human activities and the rate of its impact on the environment.

In other words, the less developed the society from the cultural point of view, the smaller the amount of its activities and the more limited the geographical environment. Due to the less developed culture, the tribal remains unknown in relation to a developed geographical environment.

They have little or no knowledge of other parts of the world. Even today, humans of many parts of the world are living in their primitive state, as a result of which they do not have the knowledge of a developed geographical environment.

(ii) Operational Environment : Under this, human beings or human-groups remain active in many forms and create a new environment by making little or no changes. But it does not become a complete geographical environment.

If 60% of the natural environment remains in this environment, then 40% of the geographical environment remains and human beings are constantly trying to reduce the dominance of 60%. The operating environment is different, because each The quantity of human activities varies due to its cultural, scientific, racial etc. qualities. Active environment is specially studied in cultural geography.

(iii) Perceptual Environment : It is also called perceptual environment. this environment active environment It is a part of, whose measurement is not possible. The knowledge of this environment is obtained through the senses. can be done, but different sensations can arise in each human being, so its Actual measurement is not possible.

Perception of this environment Experience, learning, analysis, reasoning etc. through sensory and symbolic knowledge, whereas in the geographical environment such elements exist, which can be measured.

(iv) Behavioral Environment : It is the environment to which the human group is always conscious or aware. Under this environment, man remains aware of new inventions, research and other developments. Most of the environment of the world is currently of this type of environment.

In these four environmental types, human beings are geographical, active, cognitive and behavioral environment. resides. Its subject matter can be clarified by analyzing what means it uses under cultural geography, how much it changes, which elements are neutral and which elements are active.

Man makes the environment favorable by using different types of techniques for the development of his culture. These include all those elements, which are essential for cultural development. Knowledge of all these elements is essential for human beings. In its absence, the environment of the society becomes limited, but sometimes even after acquiring knowledge, due to the narrowness of the practical approach, the geographical environment does not develop.

On the contrary, if human beings use all the techniques for the welfare of the whole world, then a wide geographical environment is created. The use of natural environment and its human-welfare approach is based on ecology. Knowledge and its proper use create a new environment.

There was almost similarity in the lifestyle, dress, domicile, ethics, food habits, economic, social and political level etc. of primitive man, but by other activities man creates a complex environment, due to which it is natural to have regional variation.

Technology and culture :

With the development of technology and culture, man has been freed from the effects of the natural environment. In fact, human culture progresses not by the acquisition of genes but by technology, manufacturing skills, visionaries, planning and knowledge-science developed by humans.

In other words, literature, art, religion, architecture and other humanitarian qualities are developed only in those countries of the world where technology ie agriculture, manufacturing and power generation etc. are advanced.

Resources and Culture :

Through resources, it fulfills the various needs of man or solves his difficulties. That is, resource is that element or substance, which has the ability to solve human difficulties. Then a thing is not a resource in itself, but when it is free from the quality that satisfies a human need, then it is a resource.

A thing is not a resource in itself, but when That quality comes in them, which has the ability to fulfill the various needs of human beings in any country and time, then it is called a resource.

Culture and resource level of the world :

(1) high level

(2) stunted growth

(3) Progressive Development

(4) Progress Oriented Development

(5) Underdeveloped countries

Resource is generated as a result of dynamic actions and reactions between man’s technical cultural ability and natural environment. Due to the dynamic growth of human elements, that quality in natural elements increases, which fulfills the needs of human beings in a country and time.

Two powers of the natural environment are clear- (a) natural powers, these are such powers, which have not been affected by human desires, technical and scientific knowledge, and (b) other natural powers- these are such powers, which are responsible for human progress. There are obstacles. The primitive man was devoid of technical and scientific knowledge, due to which he could not influence (or change) the complex natural elements, what he used to receive from human nature was considered as his (nature’s) gift.

The forest used to be the object of the infinite grace of the gods and goddesses. This man was also bound by the logic of ‘any change would incur the wrath of the gods’. Ignorant and resourceless man was not able to fight with nature. This condition of human beings was a condition of passive adaptation, which existed for millions of years.

But about 50 thousand years ago, man started fighting with nature by increasing his knowledge and technical ability. As a result, a situation of active adaptation began to arise. Humans started using many types of animals, plants and minerals.

Due to this, some human landscapes started to be formed in natural landscapes. For the last two hundred years, man has created a situation of active adaptation to the natural environment through technical knowledge and scientific progress.

As a result, instead of natural landscapes, cultural landscapes have been created and developed. , The originator of these landscapes is man himself. The development of culture and resources has been explained in the above picture.

Development of human knowledge and creation of resources :

Many activities arise as a result of the scientific development of man. These activities create resources by changing the natural environment. These activities of human beings are variable, due to which there is a change in the attainment and utilization of resources. The greater the capacity of human to make changes, the greater the capacity of meeting human needs within the resource.

According to Bowman – “Natural elements are static, but as soon as they come in contact with human elements, they become dynamic like human characteristics.” In other words, resources are not in themselves, but man-made. The development of resources is based on human knowledge, willpower and policies of the time.

This is the reason that the utility, importance and development of the resources of each region is dependent on the human resources there. depends on the actions and reactions of

Kaal Sanwar has considered the destruction of nature necessary for cultural development. Cultural landscape emerges as a result of man’s capacity for destructive tendencies and man exploits existing or potential resources in the natural environment according to his cultural capacity. The more developed this technique, the more developed the cultural landscape.

Development and processing of culture :

The development of culture is also resource based. For this reason, depending on the capacity of the resource, The culture of the country and time changes. Then resource differences lead to cultural differences. Is. As a result, different cultural landscapes have been created in the world. Paul Semmers on the importance of culture formula has been used to show.

The basis of culture is the availability of resources in different countries and times, this fact has been clarified with the help of this formula. The resource is divided by the amount of population. For example, coal, petroleum, iron, gold, silver, etc. available in a particular place are not resources for primitive humans, because they were not cultured.

In other words, a cultured human being exploits these resources through his intellect. Therefore, the stronger the development of the culture, the more the exploitation of the resource.

Cultural development and advanced technology :

Although the resources contained in the natural environment have been the basis of human’s livelihood and cultural development since the past, but its concept and interpretation are the gift of today’s developed technology.

That is, the cultural development of modern man has happened due to the availability of various types of mineral substances contained in the environment and due use and modification of the technology used in its receipt. Developed and undeveloped cultural landscapes are created by this. The following three facts affect them:

(a) Technological development of human society (b) Developed pattern of social organization, and
(c) Proper knowledge of the resource and its interpretation.

There is a close relationship between natural resources and technology. The technology of a country depends on its resources and the resources are also dependent on the technology there, because on the basis of this technology the resources are used and manufactured. Low-level elements of the natural environment become resources even for low-culture human beings with underdeveloped technological capabilities.

Due to today’s developed culture, new techniques are being used in research, extraction, construction etc. of natural resources, due to which there has been development in their production, consumption, exchange, distribution. Following are the major achievements of modern entries:-

(i) Minerals have been exploited in many areas to such a depth that the possibility of further production had ended, but due to the use of modern technology means, their termination. Will be exploited till A large part of the availability of natural resources is present in remote and uninhabited places, whose exploitation is being made possible by new technology. For example, exploitation of sea-bottom minerals, minerals of snow-covered and inaccessible hilly areas, minerals of deserts and forests, etc. has been made possible by new technology.

(ii) Sustainable forms of natural resources have been made possible by new technology, which has Use and value have increased.

On the basis of the above facts, resources can be divided into two parts.

(a) Natural Resources

(b) Human Resources (Human Resources)

Natural resources are those elements of the natural environment in which human needs can be met. Has potential, such as agricultural land, forest land, land containing minerals, etc. All these natural elements, natural They can come in the category of resources only when this quality is generated in them, so that they can fulfill the needs of human beings.

Man himself is a human resource, no natural element can be a resource until it comes in contact with a human being. The natural environment is dynamic, but as long as humans use it does, then it becomes a resource.

Usefulness of Human Resource : Close relation is found in the living conditions, education level, national sentiments, religion, climate, size of land, vegetation, soil etc. of the residents of a country or region. These elements also affect the utility of human resources. The elements affecting utility can be divided into three parts: –

(i) Physical characteristics and effects of natural resources,

(ii) the characteristics and division of cultural resources, and

(ii) Synergistic effect of factors of natural resources.

The prosperity of any country or region is evaluated on the basis of resource prosperity of this country. The more prosperous the nation is on the basis of resource endowment, the economic activities there The more they are, the more human cultural development will be.

Resource diversity and cultural development :

The quantity of the resource as well as its diversity is essential. The more types of resources are found in a country or region, the more economic activities will be there and the more its cultural development will be. In other words, the country or region where only one type of resource is found, their cultural development will be relatively less.

Natural Environment and Culture :

The development of human culture (life style) is completely based on the environment. The social, economic, religious, political and cultural system of a country is determined by the geographical environment of that country. In short, all aspects of human life in general are affected by environmental conditions.

A direct causal relationship is found in the cover and culture of the residents of a country or region and the natural environment there. In the words of the French scholar Demoulin, “Society is fashioned by geographic environment”, such as a fourth of the inhabitants of desert areas are said to be climate.

Increase in religious feeling is seen in convenient and peaceful regions. Interest in the study of astronomy is natural in open desert areas. The feeling of fighting and conquering territory in the residents of regions with refreshing climate is the gift of the environment.

Cultural geography is related to the study of mutual relations between humans and the environment. For environmental determinists, the physical environment is of primary importance in human activities. On the contrary, for Possibilism thinkers, human culture is the main quality.

Fundamentally, the view that human culture is the primary and environment is the secondary deciding factor, gives rise to difference of opinion. The real need is to bring harmony between these two ideologies.

The controlling influence of physical environment on human activities has been challenged in many ways. In the second half of the 19th century, more emphasis was placed on the primacy of the natural environment and every human activity was considered to be controlled by the natural environment.

At that time Miss Semple supported the concept of determinism the most. He and many previous scholars tried to prove through many examples that it is the environment that controls and operates the human being. This notion of the relation between environment and man is called environmentalism. In the first half of the 20th century, Le Favre and Blache and their disciples severely criticized this deterministic concept of environment and human relationship.

Man refines the environment through his cultural and knowledge-science and makes adverse elements favorable. This concept of environment and human relationship is called Possibilism. Neo-determinism lies between the two views. Griffith Taylor was the promoter of this ideology.

According to him, man is free to use the environment in a customized manner. Man can use various resources of the environment to fulfill his needs as per his wish, but he cannot create the resources of the environment.

Culture is the main part of human society due to the combination of manners, trends, languages ​​etc. It is very difficult to define culture in general terms. Culture can be properly explained by example. Mexicans, Spaniards and Americans in California have each used the many possibilities available in culturally defined areas in their own way.

The cultural regions of these groups determined how they would use the same physical environment. In these examples and some other examples, it is often seen that these differences are not due to the physical environment, but due to the differences in the possibilities inherent in the physical environment. People with different cultures react differently even to the same type of environment.

Various forms of mutual relations between human and environment : –

(i) The physical environment acts directly on man.

(ii) Human beings act directly on the physical environment.

(iii) Both the physical environment and human beings are directly interactive.

(iv) The interaction between the two is indirect as it is determined by the culture.

(v) The situation is indeed complex because of the many factors and their multifaceted relationships.

Relationship between human and environment :

Examples of direct effects of physical environment on humans are found from the same time when the black and white species of human species were created, which are the result of intense and slow solar heating respectively. Many other examples can be given of the direct effects of the physical environment on man.

No one feels comfortable at a temperature above 48°C. Similarly, only a limited number of people experience anxiety at altitudes above 5,000 metres. Although some people live in the scorching heat of the Sahara and the immense heights of Peru, Bolivia and Tibet, but on earth such contrast Areas are limited. Humans seem to be influencing the physical environment in most parts of the Earth. Human impact on the physical environment is always modified culturally.

When man uses fire, pasture and tools etc., then it is active on the physical environment only through culture. Man has made many changes and modifications in the physical environment by providing land for agriculture, building villages and cities for residence and laying a network of traffic routes for movement.

In this way, due to intermingling of various elements in the relationship between man and environment, the actual situation becomes very complicated. The existence of human beings in various forms such as physical, economic, political, spiritual, psychological etc. complicates the situation.

Physical environment is also a combination of many elements, such as weather, climate, geological formation, mineral soil, fresh and salty water, animals, vegetation etc. Detailed sub-division of all these elements is also possible. In addition to internal actions and reactions, interactions and reactions also take place in these different elements of cultural and physical environment.

Therefore, the perception of the real situation becomes very difficult. To gain knowledge of human uses of the physical environment, human effects on it, and the effects of the environment on human cultures, we must focus on cultural responses. The most important cultural processes are invention and diffusion.

The present landscape existing on the ground floor is the result of human struggles. Different cultural environments are created as a result of basic human processes, but a similar cultural environment can be created in a dissimilar physical environment.

It has been done that currents and winds do not affect the environment. America in mid-latitudes 1 European and African influence on the east coast, Asia on the north-west coast of America Europe’s north-west coast should reflect American influence, but the actual situation is not like this West coast of America Marico, Ecuador and Asian influence is reflected on Piru etc.

This object is opposite to air and water currents. Its favorable effect is reflected in other areas. They have been done in the world map in the following way.

(a) Favorable ocean currents and cultural spread through them.

  1. The spread of Asian culture to the north-west coast of North America,
  2. Influence of Mediterranean culture on the Caribbean islands and adjacent areas, and
  3. Influence of American Indian culture on the islands located in the northern part of Australia.

(b) Favorable ocean currents and no culture spread by them.

  1. From the west coast of Africa to the east coast of South America,
  2. Australia, on the south-west coast of South America,
  3. From South America to South Africa and from the east coast of North America to Europe
  4. By California on South-East Asia,

(c) Adverse ocean currents and cultural diffusion.

8. Asian and Indian cultural diffusion along the coast of Mexico,

9. Chinese cultural spread on Mexico and Peru,

10. Boats and Irish Culture Type on North-East America.

It is clear from the above analysis that the compatibility of currents has contributed to the cultural spread at some places, while at some places it has no effect. This example also makes it clear that cultural diffusion always takes place from developed areas to semi-developed and underdeveloped areas. It may happen that cultural diffusion has taken place from undeveloped centers to developed centres. In a few words, natural barriers to cultural diffusion are a flexible factor.

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